Archive for Touchyourdream

Have you ever gained an insight into life through The Invisible Gorilla?

If you google the words brain and mind, how many search results can you see? Those results might show us how much we are interested in them.

The Invisible Gorilla, coauthored by Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons, let me have an opportunity to rethink about life, so that I asked Professor Daniel Simons a few questions about that as follows. I’m once again grateful to him for his kind answers.

Daniel Simons is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois. Simons received his B.A. in Psychology and Cognitive Science from Carleton College and his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from Cornell University. He then spent five years on the faculty at Harvard University before moving to Illinois in 2002. His scholarly research focuses on the limits of human perception, memory, and awareness, and he is best known for his research showing that people are far less aware of their visual surroundings than they think. His work is published in top scientific journals and is discussed regularly in the popular media. His studies and demonstrations have been exhibited in more than a dozen science museums worldwide. In his spare time, he enjoys juggling, bridge, and chess.

(Source: http://www.theinvisiblegorilla.com/biographies.html)

Dear Professor Daniel Simons,

I’m grateful to you for letting me have a good opportunity to rethink about life through your book, The Invisible Gorilla. I’d like to ask you a question: what do you think about writing and drawing of self’s future life scenario in order to overcome the everyday illusions and create self’s unique life through that?

I think self’s future life scenario enables us to comprehensively reflect on life from different perspectives. If so, that would decrease the possibility of the failure to notice unusual and salient events in life.

I would really appreciate your opinion.

Michael Chang

Dear Mr. Chang,

Thank you for your email, and I’m glad to hear that The Invisible Gorilla was thought provoking for you.  I’m not quite sure I understand your question about future self, though.  Are you asking whether it’s possible to eliminate the illusions?  That might be hard to do, but by being more aware of them, you can try to counter them. What we can’t easily change are the cognitive limits themselves.  There is no way to change yourself so that you can notice everything around you, remember the world like a video camera, etc.

Those limits are more structural limits on how the brain and mind function, and they are often consequences of how the mind works. What we can do is learn better how the mind works so that we won’t make the wrong assumptions about what we notice and remember.  I hope that addresses your question.  If not, let me know.

Best,

Dan

Professor Daniel J. Simons

Dear Professor Daniel Simons,

Thank you for your kind reply.

My question is about how to improve the illusions and the cognitive limits, and how to apply the finite capacity to life, even though our humans can’t perfectly see everything owing to them.

As you mentioned, what we can’t easily change are the cognitive limits themselves. In this respect, the invisible gorilla might teach us to be more humble and forgiving, and furthermore to focus the finite capacity on what deserves our careful and continuous attention in life.

In consideration of aforementioned facts, the best way to use the brain and mind in our life is to focus the finite capacity on a few things that deserve our careful and continuous attention in life.

As you know, there would be a lot of things to affect our life. They could be health, money, work, friends, spouse, kids, etc. Even though we can’t perfectly see all of them, if we have an insight on life and find out the most important and uncertain things to affect life, we could live a more successful and happier life by focusing the finite capacity on them and envisioning the future based on life scenarios created by them.

Maybe, as spiritual leaders devote their whole lifetime to reflecting on only a couple of questions about life, if we unload unnecessary things from our brain and mind, and focus on more valuable things, we might not need more capacity of the brain and mind.

I would really appreciate your opinion.

With best wishes

Michael Chang

Dear Mr. Chang,

You might well be right that prioritizing larger life goals and avoiding distractions could lead to a better life. I cann’t argue with that philosophy in general.  The sorts of limits we discuss apply at a more local, moment-to-moment level too, and those immediate effects might be harder to counter through deliberate prioritization of life goals. Being aware of them can’t hurt, though, even at that level.

Best,

Dan

Professor Daniel J. Simons

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Can more people around the world live their happier and more successful lives based upon their future scenarios?

Dear Michael:

Thank you for your kind e-mail.

Yes, I think scenario planning could help many people in their personal lives. For example, if people would just think more about the top three uncertainties we all face in life – regarding health, wealth and social harmony – we might make better decisions. I fear, however, that few people have the mental discipline or skill set to follow such a disciplined approach as scenario planning.

In my books Decision Traps and Winning Decisions – both coauthored with Prof Russo from Cornell University – we address the case of individual decision making in more detail, but again within the context of professional decision making rather than personal. The style, skills and advice needed for a good book about personal decision making are not our comparative advantage I feel.

Best wishes in your path toward brilliant decisions. Paul

——————————————————————————–
Paul J.H. Schoemaker, Ph.D.
Tel: (610) 525 0495 (Fax 0864)

Executive Chairman, Decision Strategies International, Inc. Research Director, Mack Center for Technological Innovation
The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania————————————————–

PS. Please check out the following new publications of ours:The Wisdom of Making Deliberate Mistakes, Harvard Business Review, June 2006.
Peripheral Vision: Detecting the Weak Signals That Will Make or Break your Company, Harvard Business School Press, 2006.
Are You a ‘Vigilant Leader’? Sloan Management Review, Spring 2008.

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Is it possible to apply your scenario planning method to a personal life’s scenario writing?

Dear Michael

Thank you for your kind comments – I am glad you found my articles interesting.

Futures thinking is just as applicable for individuals as for organizations (although most of my work has been with organizations). I have heard it said that successful people are more likely to have written down an explicit statement of their goals. This is plausible even in the simple sense that if you know exactly what you want to achieve you are more likely to get there than if you haven’t really thought it through.

But I would also say that personal visioning is probably more immediately useful than personal scenarios (assuming we are talking about scenarios in the usual sense). What I mean by visioning is imagining, in general terms at first, and then in increasingly greater detail, exactly what you personally want and aspire to achieve, and writing it down. You might also think about why you want those things, and whether they are good for the world as well as simply for yourself. You could then backcast from the goals to see what potential action pathways there are that could take you there.

If everyone did this the world might indeed be a happier place. And yes, I do think about the future of my own life, and I do write down my own goals!

Very best wishes

Hardin

– Hardin is CEO of Synthesys Strategic Consulting Ltd. in London, and he is an Associate Fellow at the Saïd Business School, Oxford University, where he co-teaches the executive education Scenarios Programme.

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What do you think the best way to use a pocket-sized notebook, diary, journal ,and planner is? What about along with smartphone?

Do you think the analog method like using a pocket-sized notebook, diary, journal, and planner notebook with pen or pencil can coexist with the digital one like using Smartphone in the digital age?

A pocket-sized notebook, diary, journal, and planner notebook with pen or pencil can be used for various uses such as agenda and time management, and memo.

When I asked people the questions like ”what do you think the best way to use a pocket-sized notebook, diary, journal, and planner is?” and “what about along with Smartphone?”, some people strongly supported the use of a pocket-sized notebook, diary, journal, and planner notebook with pen or pencil, but some people empathized the importance of the use of software as follows:

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From: Andrew Gordon(Coordinator, Social Media at National Summer Learning Association)

Date: April 1, 2010
To: Michael Chang
I’ve always had good luck with Moleskines. They’re professional looking and durable.

As to using them, if you haven’t seen this post yet by Mike Rohde, you should. He’s turned his Moleskine into a custom weekly planner.

I’ve done the same with a pocket-size, too. It works. Hope this helps.

Links:http://www.rohdesign.com/weblog/archives/001850.html

Here’s the full size: http://apgordon.com/2010/03/11/poor-mans-moleskine/
And the pocket size: http://apgordon.com/2010/03/16/the-poor-mans-moleskine-part-2-pocket-sized/

From: Corey Tyhurst( Associate Manager at Procter & Gamble, Canada)
Date: April 2, 2010
To: Michael Chang

I have recently switched from using a standard notebook to using Microsoft OneNote 2007 for all of my meeting notes. It provides a great way to organize notes, set tasks in outlook for later, or link important pieces of information together.

Pros:
-Eliminates the need for a paper notebook
-Full integration with the entire Office Suite
-Makes it very easy to send meeting notes or agendas to colleagues
-Affordable (It’s approx. $150 for a personal version, I paid $55 for my corporate license)
-You can integrate it with your Windows based smart phone or iphone

Cons:
-If Gmail is your main email platform, there is no integration features, but obviously still works with Word/Excel/PPT
-You have to have a netbook or laptop with you at all times (I personally was always carrying around a laptop AND a notebook, so this wasn’t a con for me)
-You have to ensure you back up your files consistently because you will no longer have a paper record or your notes.

Links:

From: Richard Bott( Minister at St. Andrew’s Haney United Church (of Canada))
Date: April 1, 2010
To: Michael Chang
I love my smartphone (thank you, Google!), but I find that keeping text-based notes on it is difficult for me to do. On a normal-sized keyboard, I type faster than I write… but I don’t have an “instant on” computer.

So I carry a pocket-sized notebook to keep my ongoing ‘to-do’ list in, with the back half of it set aside for taking quick notes in improptu conversations.

From: Christine Hueber(Social Media Relationship Marketing Consultant at StorageFolsom.com)

Date: April 1, 2010
To: Michael Chang

I prefer to use a smartphone whenever possible because then what I want is in the same place.

I would use the former for more ritualized notes.
From: Kim Ervin(Outreach Team Member at Microsoft)

Date: April 2, 2010
To: Michael Chang

@Corey — Thank you so much for suggesting OneNote for Michael. OneNote is a tremendous way to organize and track notes, easily scan through them with search tools, and integrate with other Office documents. We’d love to have your voice and experience in the Microsoft Office LinkedIn Group. You can join the community, here:http://bit.ly/Lp5CA .

Cheers,
Kim
Microsoft Office Outreach

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As well known, surely, the software has advantages, but what about sketching and generating ideas, and creating a story? Do you think it is possible to do them without paper and pen or pencil?

In this respect, I would like to say that I prefer paper and pen or pencil.

Whenever I carried on a consulting project, I sketched its framework on paper and explained about that to my team members. I can’t forget how easily they understand my messages.

I would like to show two-page spread format of my notebook for generating ideas about some issue  as follows:

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Who mentored you?

Growing up, were there people in your life who helped you internally communicate with yourself, create your dream(vision), set and successfully implement your goals, and finally become the person you are today?

Think about family members, a spiritual leader, a teacher or coach, a neighbor, a boss, a colleague, or family friend; those people were mentors to you.

Thank them!

Please leave your comment in consideration of the following answers in order to share it with other people in the world.

From: Susie Marks Watt (Associate Dean for General Studies at ITT Technical Institute )

Date: March 15, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Many, including relatives and friends, bosses and co-workers, but as a lifelong educator, I must say that much of the most valuable learning brought home to me, about myself, about life, and about my profession, I learned from my students. They continue to contribute to my growth, and I am ever thankful.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
From: Pegine Echevarria(CEO/President at Team Pegine Inc.)
Date: March 14, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Mom – Became highest ranking Latina in her field. Mentored men, women and was an incredible role model for many, including me.

Alan Roth – the toughest SOB in sales. He was brilliant, tough, didn’t take any crap and most importantly made me a terrific sales person.

Pedro Bautista – Madrid Spain. taught me business. Believed in my concept and invested in me. A True Entrepreneur

Grandfather – never met him but learned about determination, persistence and believing in oneself from the stories my family shared about him.

Members of my professional associations, members of my master mind group. LOTS of authors who shared their wisdom through books.

Private Note:
Great question. Hope you get lots of responses.

From: Peggy DeMouthe( Freelance Writer at Northern California)
Date: March 15, 2010
To: Michael Chang
When I started in adversing as a copy secretary (before “administrative assistants” existed), I had free access to some of the great minds in the business. They were the original “mad men” and women–and they passed on the history of the business as well as their knowledge. They gave me my first breaks and taught me how to deal with everything from writer’s block to fussy clients, and made me confident about taking risks.

I wish I had kept the draft of a radio script I did for a long-gone Levi Strauss product line called Sierra Humps. Mike Koelker just wrote across the top of the page: “Make this weirder.” Now that’s encouragement!

From: Kumuda Gururao Ph.D. (Social Media Learning / Marketing and Management Consultant at Advisor2U, India)

Date: March 15, 2010
To: Michael Chang
My Prof. Dr.Raja Ganesan from University of Madras, India played a very important role in my career. After my Ph.D, when I was about to relax for some time (long time), he allowed me to relax for few days and said I should keep up the momentum, and urged me to continue my quest for learning, research, innovation etc.

His constant encouragement made be
• publish books,
• participate in International Conferences
• Publish articles in professional journals
• Win laurels and awards

My family and friends were very cooperative and offered continuous encouragement to my efforts.

From: Bill Nigh(Experienced, productive, and affable IT professional)
Date: March 14, 2010
To: Michael Chang
No one. I wish I had had mentors, but it never happened. My life and career have turned out just fine, but your question made me wonder how different things would have been.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
From: Sandy McMillan(Independent Trainer & Coach, United Kingdom)
Date: March 15, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Many people did and I hope I thanked them enough.

‘Mutual Mentoring’ works and Linked In is a good place to find the other person. Google MM to get some useful references.

On 3/15/10 3:53 AM, Sandy McMillan added the following clarification:
Good reference on Mutual Mentoring at http://www.ruthschimel.com/documents/MentoringforMutualBenefit.pdf

From: Don Waskiewicz(Owner at Deep Blue Insights, LLC)

Date: March 15, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Interesting question. I have had many over the years although a few were significantly more influential than others. Some of them may have intentionally sought to instruct me while others either negatively or positively taught through their actions. Some I have thanked in person, others may never realize the significance of their influence. In turn, I enjoy acting as the mentor, and I do so without ever expecting anything in return. I think the reward is in seeing your influence contribute to these individual’s success.  
                                                                                                                                                                             
From: Warren Orlans(Canadian Tax Manager at Computershare, Canada)
 Date: March 18, 2010
To: Michael Chang
When I was working at the Federal government I led a project to create a mentoring program for the tax office I worked in. I ran the program for 3 years and had the pleasure of being mentored by 2 senior managers, on in audit and one in collections. The most valuable mentoring relationship I had was an informal one, over 5 years, with the consultant we hired, Kathy Conway, as she helped me understand life in the public service and how to help others achieve their goals. She also insisted I become a mentor both inside and outside the government. It helped me quite a lot. If I knew where Kathy was today I would thank her. I attached a link to her book. It is wonderful.
http://books.google.com/books?id=OiBOoAJU54QC&pg=RA1-PT1&lpg=RA1-PT1&dq=kathy+conway+virtual+communications&source=bl&ots=FGkFjBVpHJ&sig=ENEDrD3SaTfkF1_QgL5rkGYejpI&hl=en&ei=goqiS9nZHJKYtgeek8T9CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=kathy%20conway%20virtual%20communications&f=false

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What do you think the best way for an effective communication about life between parents and their young(or grown-up) children is?

There may be conflicts and discrepancies between boomer parents and their children(or adolescents) named as the Net Generation by Don Tapscott in his book of “Grown up Digital(2009)”. Don Tapscott recommends us to have a family dinner to talk about values with kids.

Let’s think about this question in consideration of the following answers. If you have some idea or opinion about the above question, please leave your comment in consideration of the following answers in order to share it with other people in the world.

From: Shammi Malik( Senior Manager (Lubes) at Indian Oil Corporation Limited, India)

Date: March 11, 2010
To: Michael Chang
A discussion over dinner surely helps. I have made a habit of having dinner with the whole family seated together. Many things get discussed at that time and communication gaps are not there.

 From: Don Wilcox (Professor at Algonquin College, Canada)

Date: March 11, 2010
To: Michael Chang
We’ve always tried to be honest and open. If they are old enough to ask, they are old enough to receive an answer … age-appropriate perhaps, but we don’t avoid answering just because it’s uncomfortable. And, we always make sure the communication is two-way, not just parent-to-child (or teen, whatever).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
From: Susan Shwartz PhD(Harvard University) 
Date: March 16, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Honesty, respect, keeping the family together.
                                                                                                                                                                       

From: Merydith W (Developing next generation leaders: New York & Adelaide at IB Coaching)

Date: March 11, 2010
To: Michael Chang
The most important thing a parent can learn about their children is to learn what the child’s brain is capable of. Adult brain isn’t so until 26 yet many of us don’t know that and sadly we treat kids like adults and expect them to be able to function in that realm.

Books
Sex in the Boardroom (leadership development)
If it’s to be: It’s up to me
Back from Hell

Merydith had an article published in The Washington Post giving leaders tips on how to manage in the financial crisis

From: jean marsing
Date: March 11, 2010
To: Michael Chang
There is nothing better than communicating in a car.
                                                                                                                                                                                           
From: rajjak sheikh( Financial Controller at Buchen IRM Abdul Aal WLL)
Date: March 11, 2010
To: Michael Chang
the best way is choose a weekly topic on each relevant subject which concerns society in general and your family in particular for a group discussion after dinner, if family is staying together otherwise do it through internet/ chatting.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         
From: Wallace Jackson(Multimedia Producer at MindTaffy Design)
Date: March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
There is nothing better than communicating in a boat.
                                                                                                                                                                                      
From: J. Renee Gordon( Human Capital Architect at E Squared)
Date: March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Wait until you are ask. Communication is always most effective when both parties are open to it. Learning to listen is imperative to knowing how to respond. Raised four sons…none are in therapy or jail.

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What would you like to say for the young generation graduating from university or college and starting careers?

When we think about the current global economic environment in the wake of the financial crisis, the young people graduating from university or college and starting careers  have more tough issues in comparison with the older generation, specially their parents generation.

Let us think about what we can say for them! If you have some idea or opinion about the above question, please leave your comment in consideration of the following answers in order to share it with other people in the world.

From: Pat Meehan(President at The Meehan Group)

Date: March 7, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Hi  Michael,

I would say …

“Your whole career is a conversation. Your whole career and life is your connection to many other people through the network of relationships that you have continually developed each day over time. Networking is a connection with people and groups of people that grows harmoniously throughout your life, and creates an endless chain of limitless opportunities for you and the world around you.”

All the best,
Pat

 
From: Susan Shwartz PhD(Harvard University) 
Date: March 16, 2010
To: Michael Chang
 
 
You are more than your job, more than your title, more than your income: you are -you-. Yes, you must be self-sufficient, so you need to learn job-hunting as well as work.

But they are nothing without getting yourself a life.

High motivation, low expectations, and a good work ethic. It’s not easy, but it works.

From: Tom Kearney(President, Business Strategist at Building Profit)
Date: March 7, 2010
To: Michael Chang                                                                          
Congrats, but life goes by very quickly.
So … use your degree only as a tool to accomplish what you want out of life.
Prioritize your needs: friends, family, religion, money, health, status symbols like a house and car, etc.

Then, set measureable goals & benchmarks on each of them.

It’s too easy, in the daily grind of work, life and relationships to loose sight of what your really want out of life – REMAIN FOCUSED on the bigger picture! Good Luck.

From: David Mitchel(Vice President of Marketing at Norton Mitchel Marketing)
Date: March 7, 2010
To: Michael Chang
I would keep it pretty simple.

Work smart. Be proactive in your career development. Make the most of your working relationships. Work to achieve the highest degree of success.

Most importantly, maintain a work-life balance. Have fun. Enjoy yourself.

From: Kelly Feil(President at The Kellyn Group, LLC)
Date: March 7, 2010
To: Michael Chang                               
 Have patience and realize that life will teach you if you are willing to listen. Learning should not stop with your formal education. That first job, the first boss, all the frustrations… you may look back later and realize what the universe was teaching you. Embrace opportunity in all forms!
                                                               
From: Dave Maskin(The WireMan at WireNames.com)
Date: March 7, 2010
To: Michael Chang
 
Welcome to reality…
Unfortunately, with too few jobs and too many folks looking for jobs, you must be persistent in your job search…

If you have the capacity to start your own business, this is the time to do it…

From: Vince Pizzoni( Head of Professional Guidance at The Cheltenham Ladies’ College)

Date: March 13, 2010

To: Michael Chang
Stay positive, work hard, be persistent, always play to your strengths, listen and learn, take risks.           
                                                                                      
From: Subhasis Banerji (Research Associate at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Date: March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
I would say “Welcome to the REAL world” :

You can come into this world with the attitude of making a positive change with whatever talents you have, or you can enter it with the insecurity and pettiness that characterises many corporate cultures. Before you decide how much money you want to make and how soon, decide whether you want to make a change or you are OK with being changed. There will be a constant struggle between the two and so……good luck to you.

Instead of focussing on one goal for yourself, learn to live with two goals – working for your own progress AND working for the benefit of others/society. This will make you grow faster than you think, enable you to leave a legacy in your field of work and push the limits of your potential.

Most importantly, you will be happy no matter what crisis.

From: Phyllis Reardon (President at CoachPhyllis.com Inc)
Date: March 8, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Keep learning. Learnin is life long.
                                                                                                                                                                             
From: Angela Calkins (Faculty/Administrator at The Wright Institute)
Date: March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
I whole heartedly agree with Phyllis. Life is short and one should never want to stop learning and growing. I would also say for the person to look at what are the values and principles they want to live by and how are they going to do that? I think we get to cynical and fall into beliefs things can’t change. I also think we have lost what it means to have employer and employee loyalty. I think that is important. It is about mutuality and not just “what’s in it for me”.

I would also encourage someone to read Judith Wright’s book The One Decision. I have found when I focus on my one decision- I am a stand for truth- it helps guide me in all my decisions and it makes life a little easier.

From: Christine Hueber(CEO at ChristineHueber.com)

Date: March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Do your best and enjoy what you do.
                                                                                                                                                                                
From: Peter Taylor (President at North American Artisans, LLC)
Date: March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
If there is one thing that I would like to say to the younger generation, that is graduating from high school or college and joining the work force, it is that whatever your niche in the business world, I hope that you understand how essential and important your job truly is and perform it with pride every day that you go to work. If you are an entrepreneur, I wish you the best of luck in business and if you are sweeping floors, I hope that you sweep every nook and cranny. Just remember, that if there’s one person who can appreciate and take pride in your work, it’s you. Do your best in everything you do and stay confident, and I promise that you will advance; not only in your career, but in your life.
You have the ultimate power to believe in yourself, Michael. Belief and persistence is the clearest path to success.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
      
From: Subhasis Banerji( Research Associate at Nanyang Technological University,  Singapore)
Date:March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
I would say “Welcome to the REAL world” :

You can come into this world with the attitude of making a positive change with whatever talents you have, or you can enter it with the insecurity and pettiness that characterises many corporate cultures. Before you decide how much money you want to make and how soon, decide whether you want to make a change or you are OK with being changed. There will be a constant struggle between the two and so……good luck to you.

Instead of focussing on one goal for yourself, learn to live with two goals – working for your own progress AND working for the benefit of others/society. This will make you grow faster than you think, enable you to leave a legacy in your field of work and push the limits of your potential.

Most importantly, you will be happy no matter what crisis. 

From: Vince Pizzoni(Head of Professional Guidance at The Cheltenham Ladies’ College, United Kingdom)
Date: March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Stay positive, work hard, be persistent, always play to your strengths, listen and learn, take risks.                             
                                                     
From: Elliot Echlov (Sr. IT Support Analyst at BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina)
 Date: March 13, 2010
To: Michael Chang
Congratulations. Now you are ready to start learning the things you’ll need to know to have a successful career. There will be people who will help you do this and people who will try to keep you from doing this. The biggest challenge you will face over the next 3-5 years is figuring out which people belong in those categories because you are going to have to work with all of them.

And always wear sunscreen.(http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/columnists/chi-schmich-sunscreen-column,0,4054576.column)

From: June R. Massoud

  • Computer Engineer and Consultant at Self-Employed
  • Teacher and Substitute Teacher at English School Boards in Montreal
  •  

    Date: March 13, 2010
    To: Michael Chang
    Have new interests outside your chosen profession or vocation, develop emotional intelligence, always expect the unexpected, expect the least and do the most, don’t be greedy, don’t chase money as the only reason for your existence, help those in need, don’t be selfish, collaboration is always better than competition and by the way, if you say all this in your valedictory speech, make sure you quote the source. Thank you.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

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